Bettina Knorr
Phone: +49 (0) 6221 54-5560
Fax: +49 (0) 6221 54-4529
Postal Address
Heidelberg University
Prof. Bernhard Höfle
Institute of Geography
Im Neuenheimer Feld 368
69120 Heidelberg
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Methods & Algorithms
Virtual Laser Scanning

Virtual Laser Scanning

Virtual laser scanning is a tool to create simulated point cloud data as would be acquired by a LiDAR sensor. In our open source project HELIOS++ we develop the method of VLS further to provide e.g. training data for machine learning, survey planning, ground truth creation, education, etc.


4D Objects-By-Change (4D-OBC)

Time series-based 3D change analysis of natural surfaces enables to extract surface changes forming objects-by-change in their varying spatial and temporal extents from large and dense 4D geospatial point clouds.



M3C2-EP presents how error propagation for 3D change detection can be used to accurately quantify the minimum detectable change, the so-called Level of Detection. Measurement and processing uncertainties are included and the concept can be extended to more complex error models.

Multidirectional Change

Multi-Directional Change

Methods of multi-directional change quantification provide an alternative view of movement where change processes operate in a direction that is not surface-normal, the underlying process(es) may not be known and movement(s) across the point cloud scene is not oriented along a single axis.

Research Projects and Grants
Current Projects Former Projects

3DForEcoTech - Three-dimensional forest ecosystem monitoring and better understanding by terrestrial-based technologies

COST - European Cooperation in Science & Technology (2021–ongoing)

Martin Mokroš et al.



BMBF (2020–2022), DFG (2019–2022)

Bernhard Höfle et al.



Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union (2020–2023)

Bernhard Höfle, Katharina Anders


LOKI - Airborne Observation of Critical Infrastructures

BMBF (2020–2022)

Bernhard Höfle, Alexander Zipf, Katharina Anders, Benjamin Herfort, Sabrina Marx, Tahira Ullah, Vivien Zahs


3D Micro-Mapping

Heidelberg University (2019–ongoing)

Bernhard Höfle, Katharina Anders, Lukas Winiwarter


SYSSIFOSS – Synthetic structural remote sensing data for improved forest inventory models

DFG (2019–2022)

Bernhard Höfle, Fabian Faßnacht (KIT), Nina Krašovec, Hannah Weiser


ER3DS – Emission Reduction in Smart Cities Using 3D Spatial Sensing and Analysis

BMBF (2019–2021)

Nicole Aeschbach, Katharina Anders, Bernhard Höfle, Lukas Winiwarter, Vivien Zahs


Auto3Dscapes – Autonomous 3D Earth Observation of Dynamic Landscapes

HGS MathComp (2017–2021)

Katharina Anders, Bernhard Höfle, Hubert Mara

The list of all research projects of the GIScience and 3D Geodata Processing groups can be accessed here

Editor: Webmaster Team
Latest Revision: 2021-08-25
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